Automobiles are big and heavy with lots of mechanical moving parts. In the right environment, a vehicle can be maintained and repaired safely and effectively. However, in the wrong environment repairing a vehicle can be dangerous. Follow the tips in this chapter to stay safe.
· Avoid loose clothing or hair
· Be aware of hazardous chemicals and keep a flushing station nearby for eyes and skin (at home this could be a bathroom sink or shower).
· Keep proper clean up materials in case of an accidental spill (see below)
· Never go under a vehicle that is elevated improperly (the jack to change the tire is NOT sufficient, see more details below)
· Know where the fire extinguisher is and have a planned exit route. The fire extinguisher should be kept in working order and in a place with easy access.
· Keep an emergency response number handy and posted clearly where others can see it.
· Keep an emergency kit in your vehicle for roadside emergencies or repairs.
· Consult your vehicle owner’s manual for specific safety rules regarding your vehicle
Always wear safety goggles for eye protection. Vehicle repair involves the use of many types of fluids which can splatter and eye contact should be avoided.
Do not wear ties or any loose, hanging clothing. Do not let ponytails
down or leave any loose strands of hair. Bundle your hair up if it’s
long. Do not wear necklaces, rings or other jewelry.&amp;nbsp;
Ideally, the best clothing for performing automotive maintenance and repairs is a mechanic’s jumpsuit. It’s durable and comfortable, there are pockets for tools, and there is nothing loose that can get caught and pulled into moving parts.
Hazardous chemicals can include gasoline, oil, coolant, and other vehicle fluids. Avoid contact with eyes and mouth. If you ever have contact with eyes then flush them with cool water for several minutes. Some car fluids can be acidic, such as battery fluid. If you ever start to feel burning, then flush with cool water for several minutes. If burning continues then seek medical attention.
Proper clean-up materials include shop rags and “oil dri”, which is simply kitty litter without the fragrance. When a spill occurs you should spread enough “oil dri” over the spill to absorb the entire spill. Then sweep it up with a broom and dustpan and throw it away.
Avoid clutter in your workspace that can act as a fall hazard. Keep storage and non-automotive tools in other areas. Also, clean up tools after you’re finished.
A motor vehicle is a 4,000+ pound piece of machinery that could fall on top of you. Never go under a vehicle that is not elevated properly. If the vehicle is elevated properly then there should not be any problem.
Vehicles should only be lifted at their proper lifting points. The proper lifting points on a vehicle are the locations on the vehicle where you place the jack to lift the vehicle and where the jack stands are placed to keep the vehicle elevated. Lifting points are different for every vehicle. The owner’s manual will specify where the lifting points are for your specific vehicle. Often vehicles have lift points marked on the running board or rocker panel. There are a couple of disastrous events that can happen during an attempt to raise a vehicle without using the proper lifting points. The weight of the car pressing down and the jack pressing up can damage the body of the vehicle. Or worse, the jack could tip or slide while a person is underneath the vehicle.
An illustration that demonstrates vehicle lift points for a sample vehicle; consult the owner’s manual for
the lift points of a specific vehicle.
Any vehicle that has a frame can be lifted by the frame. When the front is lifted the jack is usually placed under the suspension cross member. When lifting the rear the jack is placed under the axle if it has a solid axle. If it doesn’t have a solid axle then it should be lifted by the factory-recommended lift points.
Vehicles should always be on firm, level ground. If the ground is not level then the car may roll and tip the jack. A jack or a jack stand can also slip out or fail to hold the vehicle in an elevated position when the ground is not firm, such as on a dirt road or when there is ice or snow.
There are different types of jacks and jack stands. A jack is used to raise the vehicle either by hydraulic pumping or hand cranking. A jack stand is used to keep the vehicle elevated and has a firm square base. One type of jack that people are most familiar with is the one that is included with the spare tire kit. This is to be used only for changing the tire and it is not sufficient for keeping a vehicle elevated when working under the vehicle. The jack used for changing tires often has a four-point rectangular base. This is not as stable as a square base.
Hydraulic jack with a hand-pump mechanism
When minor repairs are being performed, such as changing a tire, it is permissible to raise just one corner of the vehicle, or the front or the rear. The vehicle is first raised with a jack and then placed on jack stands. (Do not go under the vehicle while it is elevated by a jack). The vehicle should be equally balanced on the jack stands.
A mechanic’s shop may have industry jacks or hydraulic lifts. These can be used to raise the vehicle and keep it elevated. These lifts can raise the entire vehicle at the same time. When lifting the entire vehicle the center of gravity should be positioned evenly with the lifting hoist arms. This is evident when the vehicle is raised and all tires lift off the ground at the same time. Most vehicles are front-heavy due to the engine block. However, many work trucks are balanced to have the center of gravity in the middle.
Hydraulic lift with hoist arms that raise the vehicle on its lifting points. The lift consists of two vertical blue beams and four white hoist arms. Two white hoist arms on the other side of the vehicle are not seen in the pictures.
Another hydraulic lift that raises the car on its tires
More instructions will be given for lifting a corner of the vehicle to replace a spare tire in Chapter 4. The owner’s manual should be consulted any time when lifting the vehicle.
In an emergency, preparedness and a quick response can save a life. Although it is relatively rare, a fire can occur when working on motor vehicles. Some vehicle fluids are flammable. They can combust with excess heat or when a faulty electrical wire creates a spark. Keep a working fire extinguisher in an accessible place. All shop workers should know where the fire extinguisher is. An ABC or “tri-class” fire extinguisher is appropriate for auto repair shops. Also, have a plan for an emergency escape if a fire becomes uncontrollable.
Keep an emergency response number posted clearly so everyone can see it. Keep a first aid kit handy for minor injuries, like superficial cuts and scratches.
Have a flushing station nearby for any vehicle fluid contact with eyes and mouth, or with skin if the fluid is acidic.
A commercial mechanic’s shop will usually have industry-standard tools, such as a torque wrench, hydraulic lifts, pneumatic (air-operated) tools, and electronic devices that connect to the vehicle’s computer to receive diagnostics. However, a startup repair shop or a highly proficient mechanic at home could get most jobs done with a $200 set of tools if needed.
The most common tools in a mechanic’s set include the following:
Flashlight. A flashlight is one of the most-used tools in an auto repair shop. It helps the mechanic see anywhere for visual inspections, maintenance and repairs.
Socket sets and wrenches. These have two different measurement systems. One is metric and one SAE (or standard). The metric system has measurements in millimeters (mm). SAE has measurements in inches or fractions of inches (1/4, 5/16, etc.).
Wrenches often have an open end and an opposite box end.
Socket Ratchet Wrench
Image credit: CC-BY-SA-Heron2 on Wikipedia
These wrenches have an open end and a box end Image credit: CC-BY-SA-Ildar Sagdejev on Wikipedia
Pneumatic (air-powered) wrench
Image credit: CC-BY-SA-Bushytails on Wikipedia
Oil Filter Wrench
Has a prying mechanism like other wrenches but one end has a belt that wraps around the object being unscrewed, which is much bigger in diameter than the regular bolts and hex-head screws that other wrenches are used for.
Image credit: CC-BY-SA-Three-quarter-ten on Wikipedia
4-way lug wrench
Image credit: CC-BY-SA-Steffen Heinz Caronna
Screwdrivers, both Philips head (the cross-section looks like a cross or plus sign) and flat tipped (or slotted). When using screwdrivers, try to match the size of the screwdriver head with the screw. Also try to avoid stripping the head of the screw (this has occurred when you can firmly turn the screwdriver against the head of the screw continually and the screw never rotates).
Screwdriver tips showing Philips (left) and flat or slotted (right)
Jacks. These are used to lift the vehicle. Some are rotated by hand. Other higher-end jacks are pumped. Some are hydraulic.
Image credit: CC-BY-SA-Nerijp on Wikipedia
Spare tire kit with a spare tire, lug wrench and tire jack. The tire jack is already placed under the lifting point and partially cranked.
Image credit: CC-BY-Kurt Nordstrom
Jack Stands. These are used to keep the vehicle elevated after it has been raised with the jack. They have a wide square base and come to an apex where the car rests on them.
Two jack stands, the lever shown on these stands is not used to raise the vehicle but to adjust the height of the stands to keep the vehicle raised.
Pry bar. This can occasionally be used to tension a belt.
Two pry bars, different sizes
Hammer. This can be any type of hammer and it is used on occasion, such as when freeing a stuck drum or rotor from its hub.
Test Light. This used to test fuses (see Chapter 2).
Funnel. Used to fill vehicle fluids.
Funnel (yellow) for car fluids
Drain Pan. Used to collect vehicle fluids when changing fluids and filters or flushing systems.
Tire Pressure Gauge. Used to measure tire pressure.
Tire pressure gauge.
Battery Tester. Used to check the battery to see if it is charged.
Computer Scanner. Connects to the vehicle computer to receive diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs)
An auto scanner which receives DTCs from the vehicle’s computer Image credit: CC-BY-SA-Florian Schaffer
There are many other tools that can be used. But these are the most basic.
Now that we’ve reviewed safety rules and gone over the tools used in a mechanic’s shop, you’re ready to continue to the next chapter -- General Maintenance.